Ru

Constitution

The Constitution of Russian Federation is the principal law of the state that guarantees judicial, political and ideological characteristics of the state. The President of the Russian Federation takes the oath on the Constitution.

Constitutional law must be obeyed on the whole territory of the Russian Federation. Violation of constitutional law entail punishment according to the judiciary of the Russian Federation.

The history of the Russian Constitution is a range of constant changes that led to the creation of its modern variant. Years of the USSR Constitutions reflects certain stages in the development of the country’s historical processes. The Constitution of the USSR has been changed several times.

The Constitution of 1918 adopted at the 5th all-Russian Soviet session was to become the first Russian Constitution. The so-called “Declaration of rights of laborious and exploited people” lay the foundation for this document.

The USSR Constitution of 1924 included the Declaration and Treaty of the constitution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Thus, the Constitution of 1924 confirmed the establishment of the USSR itself and included sections of regulations on high-authority organizations in the USSR, on sovereign rights of united republics and on united citizenship, on the USSR Central Executive Committee; on the national emblem, the flag and capital of the USSR etc. the Constitution of the RSFSR of 1925 was approved by a Decree of 12th all-Russian Soviet Session.

The USSR Constitution of 1936 allowed it to broaden democratic rights of citizens, for instance the voting right became universal. Education, labour, social security etc rights were guaranteed. In the Constitution of 1936 personal inviolability was confirmed, and the structure of Soviet organs was adjusted.

Further work on the Constitution presupposed the widening of citizen rights. The USSR Constitution of 1977 is a continuity of previous Soviet Constitutions however the role of socialist legality was increased, CPSU was fixed as a political centre of the USSR.

The Contemporary Constitution of the Russian Federation is the Constitution of the Russian Federation of 1993. This Constitution was adopted on 12th December 1993. The adoption of the Constitution came true after national voting had been held.

The RF Constitution text includes the Preamble and two sections. The first section guarantees the grounds of public, legal, social, political and economic systems, as well as federative mechanism and major personal rights. Here are provided regulations of Constitution revision. The second section of the Constitution of the Russian Federation determines final and transitional regulations. Articles of the RF Constitution are part of the Constitutional Chapters.

Nowadays the Day of the Russian Federation Constitution is celebrated on 12th December.