Powers, establishment and operations procedure of the Russian Constitutional Court are determined by the Russian Constitution and Federal Constitutional Law in the Russian Constitutional Court.
From May 2008 the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation is located at 1, Senatskaya ploshchad, Saint Petersburg, Russia
The first constitutional court appeared in Austria; its concept was developed by Austrian Lawyer Hans Kelzen.
After WWII, a Constitutional Court appeared in the Federal Republic of Germany (the FRG Constitutional Court), and then, when the Fifth Republic was established in France in 1958 (the Constitutional Council of France, with a number of judicial functions but limited powers), when the country was federalized in Belgium (Constitutional Court of Belgium, originally called the Arbitration Court, but having constitutional powers from the very beginning). In 1986, the Constitutional Tribunal appeared in Poland, and early in the 1990“s, virtually in all East European countries (including in Russia, the Russian Constitutional Court).
There are no constitutional courts in a number of states, and the Supreme Court has powers to determine whether or not laws are constitutional (and to cancel contradicting constitutions) (for instance, in the U.S.A.; also see the Swiss Supreme Court).
In the Soviet Union, the USSR Law on Constitutional Supervision in the USSR of December 23, 1989, No. 973-I, vested the functions of constitutional supervision on legislative bodies — Councils of People’s Deputies. The Constitutional Supervision Committee was set at the Supreme Court. The same committees were established at the Supreme Courts of union and autonomous republics.
The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation comprises nineteen arbitrators appointed to their position for the lifetime by the Federation Council, at the recommendation of the Russian President. The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation is competent if at least three fourths of the total number of arbiters is present in it. Powers of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation shall exist indefinitely.